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10 Essential Fly Patterns for Trout

Stuff that works, stuff that holds up – Guy Clark said it best. Classics and old-standbys are things that are proven, time-tested and true.  In trout fishing, there are thousands of variations of effective fly patterns.  Among those, certain patterns have reached near legendary status.  In this post, we discuss ten of the most trusted fly patterns to include in your trout arsenal and how to fish them.

Parachute Adams

The Parachute Adams (PA) is truly a classic, versatile dry pattern used for matching the hatch.  Anglers love this pattern for its consistent ability to spark exciting trout rises.  In addition, the fly’s light-colored parachute post contrasted with its darker body makes this fly easier for trout (and anglers) to see in varying light conditions. 

The PA may be fished on a dead drift in rivers or still water as a highly effective mayfly imitation.  You can also fish this fly as a general attractor pattern or skitter it across the water to imitate caddis!

 

Fly Recipe

 

Elk Hair Caddis

The Elk Hair Caddis (EHC) is a high-floating, buoyant pattern, perfectly suited for dead drifting in fast-moving, pocket water.    Arguably the best adult caddis imitation available, the EHC is a highly versatile dry. 

The EHC can be fished high on the water, half-sunk to fish similar to a popper, or even submerged just beneath the surface as a wet fly!  You will absolutely want to have this pattern in a variety of sizes and colors.  It just works!

 

Fly Recipe

 

Royal Wulff

Invented by legendary fly angler and tyer, Lee Wulf, the Royal Wulff is an excellent searching pattern that is effective in both fast- and slow-moving freestone streams.   The Royal Wulff was designed primarily as a general attractor pattern that fishes high on a drift. 

This pattern is very effective in pocket water in part because of its colors and high-profile silhouette that make it easier for trout to see in heavy water.  Stock your trout box with this world-famous pattern!

 

Fly Recipe

 

March Brown

The March Brown is yet another classic dry fly pattern which, no surprise, imitates the March Brown Mayfly.  This pattern is general enough for use as a searching pattern and works great for the sporadic May Fly hatches which occur throughout the day. 

@runefrem

 

Fly Recipe

 

Nymphs

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Zebra Midge

Madison, the Cowichan, the Snake and the Gunnison all have one thing in common –wary trout that inhabit each of these rivers (and others all over the world) love the Zebra Midge.  This pattern is proof positive that simple, easy-to-tie patterns deserve our attention as fly tyers.

Dead drift the Zebra Midge with an indicator on a dropper beneath an attractor pattern and get ready to fool some highly selective trout!

 

Fly Recipe

 

Copper John

The Copper John is a relatively quick-sinking mayfly nymph pattern that was developed in the early 1990s by Boulder, Colorado resident, John Barr.  The fast sink-rate of this fly may be one of the factors that contribute to its high degree of success as a nymphing pattern. 

In addition to Euro nymphing techniques (think French Nymphing or Czech Nymphing), this fly can also be fished with an indicator as a part of a dropper rig, below an attractor pattern. 

 

Bead-Head Prince Nymph

We can’t have a complete discussion of essential trout flies without mentioning the Bead-Head Prince Nymph, which many anglers the world-over have heralded as their go-to search pattern for nymphing.  This pattern effectively imitates caddisfly nymphs as well as small stoneflies.  

The Prince Nymph can be fished using a drifting technique, or, stripped-in similar to a streamer pattern. 

 

Egg Fly

While not truly a nymph pattern, I include the Egg Fly here because you will employ a similar technique for fishing this pattern.  The Egg Fly is probably among the simplest patterns you will ever tie, but don’t let that deter you – this pattern is highly effective!

During spawing season, trout actively eat the eggs of other trout and salmon because they are a nutrient-rich meal that is relatively easy to pick off from the bottom of the river.  It’s a simple equation that makes a lot of sense for foraging trout.  Drift this pattern near to or at the bottom of a freestone stream and be sure to carry multiple sizes and colors as the fish can be very selective!

@the_fly_lab

 

Fly Recipe

Wooly Bugger

The Wooly Bugger is easily one of the most popular and widely used streamer, or wet fly patterns, period.  This venerable fly is useful for a wide variety of fisheries, from streams to still waters, from freshwater to saltwater.  It is also used to imitate a variety of the menu items that trout love to eat, from baitfish to leaches, and even crayfish! 

Fish this fly upstream and let it drift on a dropper rig, then strip it in on the swing.  On still water ponds and lakes, cast the Wooly Bugger near structure and strip it in, similar to fishing a clouser pattern.  Tying this pattern in a variety of sizes and colors is highly recommended!

 

Fly Recipe

 

Muddler Minnow

Originally intended as a sculpin pattern, the Muddler Minnow has become a classic pattern that has earned its reputation a go-to-fly for carnivorous trout.  This world-famous streamer pattern is versatile!   Fish the Muddler though deeper pools to imitate sculpin, or skate it on the water’s surface to imitate a mouse. 

 

Fly Recipe